Engineering and Environmental
External costs of transport in Poland
external costs, transport, internalisation of external costs, transport policy
The development of transport sector is very closely linked to the process of socio-economic development. The interrelations between transport and economic growth are complex and there are many feedbacks. Transport has a vital role – it brings the markets closer together, increases production, activates regions around the infrastructure, enabling other sectors to function smoothly. Transport is also the source of many significant negative externalities for the environment, society and economy. It also turns out that, despite many years of experience in the study of the external effects and costs of transport, there are still large discrepancies in approaches and research methods, as well as terminology and rules for defining the concepts. The aim of this article is to review available studies on the estimation of external costs and to estimate these costs for transport in Poland using methods recommended by the European Commission. Knowledge of the cost external of transport is the basis for the internalisation of these costs and it allow to choose the most effective transport policy instruments.
APA style references: Pawłowska, B. (2018). External costs of transport in Poland. Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 27 (1), 28-41. doi: 10.22630/PNIKS.2018.27.1.4
APA style citation in text: The first time citation in text: (Pawłowska, 2018), next citation: (Pawłowska, 2018)
Chicago style references: Pawłowska, Barbara. "External costs of transport in Poland." Scientific Review Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 79 ser., vol. 27, no 1, (2018): 28-41. doi: 10.22630/PNIKS.2018.27.1.4.
Chicago style citation in text: (Pawłowska 2018)
Bibtxt style references: Bibtxt_utf8_79art4en.bib
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